ITNW 2313 - Networking Hardware
( LAN Hardware/Wiring & Installation )
Prof. Michael P. Harris, CCNA, CCAI

Lesson #9:  Exploring Wireless LANs

Wireless LANs / Wi-Fi

The popularity of WLANs is undeniable.  The following three main driving forces play in favor of WLANs:

  • Flexibility
  • Increased productivity
  • Cost savings compared to wired deployment

WLANs let users access servers, printers, and other network resources regardless of their location, within the wireless reach.  This flexibility means that, for example, a user's laptop stays connected working from a colleague's cubicle, from a small meeting room, or from the cafeteria.  Recognizing the benefits brought about by WLAN flexibility,  businesses are now deploying WLANs in record numbers.

According to a 2003 NOP World research study, WLAN users stayed connected to their corporate network 3.64 hours per day longer than their wired peers, thus increasing their productivity by 27 percent.  Through the flexibility of WLANs, not only does the productivity go up, but the response times are also significantly improved.

The benefits of wireless mobility donít stop at laptops and personal digital assistants (PDAs).  IP telephony and videoconferencing are also supported over WLANs, integrating quality of service (QoS) to ensure that the interactive traffic has priority over the less-time-sensitive data transfers.

Another significant benefit of WLANs is their low-cost deployment in locations where the costs of running LAN wire would be prohibitive.  The total cost of ownership (TCO) of a WLAN is very low compared to the benefits they bring to an organization, providing that a WLAN is secured and managed properly.

Companies that are not deploying WLANs quickly enough find that employees take the matter in their own hands and install their own WLANs, potentially creating significant breaches in the corporate network security infrastructure.  Therefore, wireless security is an important topic to discuss in conjunction with wireless design.

WLANs, seen just a few years ago as a novelty, are now seen as critical to corporate productivity.

Wireless Technology Overview

In its most simplistic form, a WLAN is an LAN that uses radio frequency (RF) to communicate instead of using copper wire cabling.  As shown below, wireless clients connect to wireless access points  (WAPs) also refered to as just access points  (APs).

Wired and Wireless Networks

Because WLANs use RF (Radio Frequency), the throughput (speed) is inversely proportional to the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.  Therefore, everything being equal (notwithstanding interferences), the closer a wireless client is to a transmitter, the greater is the throughput; see below.

Throughput (Coverage) Is Related to the Distance from the RF Transmitter

However, wireless communication brings a trade-off between flexibility and mobility versus battery life and usable bandwidth.

Wireless Standards

WLAN standards that are currently supported by major vendors were developed by the Working Group 11 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802 committee.  The most common standards are shown here:

Standard Maximum Throughput
Compatibility Ratified
802.11b11 2.4-- 1999
802.11a54 5-- 1999;
available 2001
802.11g54 2.4Backward-compatible with 802.11b2003

The 802.11a standard operates in the unlicensed 5 GHz band, which makes the transmission vulnerable to interference from microwave ovens and cordless phones.  The strength of 802.11b and 802.11g signals, which operate in the 2.4 GHz band, is affected negatively by water, metal, and thick walls.

The 802.11b and 802.11g standards divide the 2.4 GHz band into 14 overlapping individual channels.  The overlap spans a width of 5 adjacent channels, therefore channels 1, 6, and 11 do not overlap and therefore can be used to set up multiple networks.  The 802.11a standard is an amendment to the original standard.  The advantage of using 802.11a is that it suffers less from interference, but its use is restricted to almost line of sight, thus requiring the installation of more access points than 802.11b to cover the same area.

The medium access method of the IEEE 802.11 standards, called the Distribution Coordination Function  (DCF), is similar to the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect  (CSMA/CD) access method used by Ethernet.

The following types of frames are transferred over the airwaves:

  • Data frame— Network traffic.

  • Control frame— Frame controlling access to the medium, similar to a modemís analog connection control mechanism, with its Request To Send (RTS), Clear To Send (CTS), and acknowledgment (ACK) signals.

  • Manager frame— Frames similar to data frames, pertaining to the control of the current wireless transmission.

Other Wireless Standards

Other wireless standards include the following:

  • Bluetooth— This is a specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices, such as headsets. Bluetooth could be considered a standard for a personal area network  (PAN).

  • HomeRF— In 1998, a consortium was formed to promote the idea of HomeRF to be used with products in the home market.  The participants were, among others, Siemens, Motorola, and Compaq.

Wireless Components

The main components of wireless networks are as follows:

  • Wireless access points (WAP or AP)

  • Wireless client devices (hosts)

Wireless Access Points

WAPs provide connectivity between wireless client devices and the wired network, as shown in the image above.

Integrated Access Point

The WAP does not need to be a stand-alone device.  Many vendors offer integrated access point functionality for some small— to medium— business (SMB)  and small office— home office  (SOHO) routers, as shown below.  By installing a wireless interface card  (WIC) in Cisco, Linksys, Netgear, and other routers.  You can run concurrent routing, switching, and security services and include  IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN  functionality in a single device.

Integrating Routing and Wireless Functionality

Wireless Client Devices

A wireless client device is equipped with a wireless interface card  (WIC), which the device uses to communicate over RF with WAPs.  Wireless clients can be the following items, among other things:

  • User workstations and laptops
  • Wireless print servers
  • Wireless web cams & secirity cameras
  • Smart Phones & PDAs
  • Wireless IP phones

User Workstations and Laptops: Ad-Hoc Network

In addition to connecting to a WLAN access point, two wireless clients can form an exclusive, point-to-point, wireless network directly without the need for an access point (e.g. a wireless version of an Ethernet cross-over cable).  This type of point-to-point network is known as an ad-hoc network,  whereas a traditional one-to-many (access point -to- wireless clients) WLAN is called an Infrastructure Network.

Smart Phone & PDA Wi-Fi access

Wireless Smart Phones and PDAs— devices that connect directly to the wireless network— play a significant role in an organization where time is extremely sensitive.  An example of where 802.11g-compatible devices (wireless PDAs) are put to benefit is triage nurses who are faster at inputting their assessment and sharing their findings on the spot rather than walking back to the nursesí station to do so.

Wireless IP Phones

Absolute campus mobility is probably best demonstrated by wireless IP phones.  These 802.11b/g phones have built-in security, QoS, and management features.  Wireless IP phones leverage existing IP telephony deployments, as shown below.

Deploying Wireless IP Phones

Wireless Security: 802.11i & 802.1x

Although security was originally included with 802.11 standards, it soon became obvious that it wasnít enough.  Wireless security— or the lack of it— has been a major contributor to IT managersí reluctance to adapt wireless LANs.

Recently, wireless security has improved dramatically, providing IT managers with an acceptable level of comfort to proceed with the installation of WLANs.  IEEE 802.11i, released in June 2004, addresses current security concerns.

In addition to the 802.11 suite of standards, the 802.1x standard can be used for wireless security.  More precisely, 802.1x addresses port-based access control.

Wireless Security Issues

A main issue with wireless communication is unauthorized access to network traffic or, more precisely, the watching, displaying, and logging of network traffic, also known as sniffing.  Contrary to a wired network, where a hacker would need to be physically located at the corporate premises to gain access through a network drop, —with a wireless network, the intruder can access the network from a location outside the corporate building.  WLANs use radio frequencies, and their signals propagate through ceilings and walls.  Therefore, wireless eavesdropping, also known as war driving or walk-by hacking, —and rogue Access Points, unauthorized WAPs that allow a hacker access to a network, —are two significant security issues with wireless networks.

In addition, wireless equipment tends to ship with open access.  Not only is traffic propagated in clear text, but WAPs also voluntarily broadcast their identity, known as the  Service Set Identifier  (SSID).

Wireless Threat Mitigation

Thanks to the wireless open-access default mode, we can join a Wi-Fi network from our favorite coffee shop or hotel room;  however, this unrestricted access is not advisable for corporate or SOHO networks.  Wireless network security can be classified into the following three categories:

  1. Basic wireless security

  2. Enhanced wireless security

  3. Wireless intrusion detection

Basic Wireless Security

Basic wireless security is provided by the following built-in functions:

  • SSIDs
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
  • Media Access Control (MAC) address verification


An SSID  is a code that identifies membership with a WAP.  All wireless devices that want to communicate on a Wi-Fi network must have their SSID set to the same value as the WAPs SSID to establish connectivity with the WAP, —very much like a NetBIOS workgroup membership.

By default, a WAP broadcasts its SSID every few seconds.  This broadcast can be stopped so that a drive-by hacker canít automatically discover the SSID and hence the WAP.  However, because the SSID is included in the beacon of every wireless frame,  it is easy for a hacker equipped with sniffing equipment  to discover the SSID and fraudulently join the network.

Beacon Frame

The WAP periodically advertises SSID and other network information using a special 802.11 management frame  known as a beacon.

Being able to join a wireless network by the mere fact of knowing the SSID is referred to as open authentication.

WEP  -Wired Equivalent Privacy

WEP can be used to alleviate the problem of SSID broadcasts  by encrypting  the traffic between the wireless clients and WAPs.  Joining a wireless network using WEP is referred to as shared-key authentication,  where the AP sends a challenge to the wireless client who must return it encrypted.  If the AP can decipher the clientís response, the WAP has the proof that the client possesses valid keys  and therefore has the right to join the wireless network.  WEP security comes in two encryption strengths: 64-bit  and 128-bit.

Note: Even if a user manages to proceed with open authentication —for example, he guesses the SSID,  if WEP is activated, he could not communicate with the AP until he obtains the authentication keys.

However, WEP is not considered secure: A hacker sniffing first the challenge and then the encrypted response could reverse-engineer the process and deduce the keys used by the client and WAP.

MAC Address Verification

To increase wireless security, a network administrator could use MAC address filtering, in which the WAP is configured with the MAC addresses  of the wireless clients that are to be permitted access.

Unfortunately, this method is also not secure because frames could be sniffed to discover a valid MAC address, which the hacker could then spoof.

Enhanced Wireless Security

The stronger security standards, shown below, were created to replace the weaknesses in WEP.

Security Component 802.11 Original Standards Security Enhancement
Authentication Open authentication or
Encryption WEP Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA),
then 802.11i


IEEE 802.1x is a port-based  network access control  standard.  It provides per-user, per-session, mutual strong authentication, not only for wireless networks but also for wired networks, if need be.

Depending on the authentication method used, 802.1x can also provide encryption.  Based on the IEEE Extensible Authorization Protocol  (EAP), 802.1x allows WAPs and clients to share and exchange WEP encryption keys automatically.  The access point acts as a proxy, doing the heavier computational load of encryption.  The 802.1x standard also supports a centralized key management for WLANs.

WPA  -Wi-Fi Protected Access

WPA was introduced as an intermediate solution to WEP encryption and data integrity insecurities while the IEEE 802.11i standard was being ratified.

When WPA is implemented, access to the WAP is provided only to clients that have the right passphrase.  Although WPA is more secure than WEP, if the preshared key is stored on the wireless client and the client is stolen,  a hacker could get access to the wireless network.

WPA supports both authentication and encryption.  Authentication done through preshared keys is known as WPA Personal;  when done through 802.1x,  it is known as WPA Enterprise.

WPA offers Temporal Key Integrity Protocol  (TKIP) as an encryption algorithm and a new integrity algorithm  known as Michael.  WPA is a subset of the 802.11i specification.

WPA2  -802.11i

In June 2004, the IEEE ratified the draft for the 802.11i standard, also known as WPA2.  The WPA2 / 802.11i  standard formally replaces WEP and other security features of the original IEEE 802.11 standard.

WPA2 is the product certification  given to wireless equipment that is compatible with the 802.11i  standard.  WPA2 certification provides support for the additional mandatory 802.11i security features that are not included in WPAWPA2, like WPA, supports both Enterprise  and Personal  modes for authentication.

In addition to stricter encryption  requirements,  WPA2 also adds enhancements to support fast roaming  of wireless clients by allowing a client to preauthenticate  with the access point toward which it is moving,  while maintaining a connection to the access point that it is moving away from.

Wireless Intrusion Detection

Many products provide rogue access point  detection.  However, some third-party products integrate better than others with specific WAPs.  One such third-party product is from AirDefense.  This product provides wireless intrusion detection  that uses the access points to scan the airwaves and report wireless activity.

WLAN Roaming

WLANs are relatively inexpensive to deploy compared to wired networks, and because, as shown above, throughput  is directly related to the proximity  of WAPs.  Network managers often install WAPs to provide overlapping signals,  as shown below.  Using this overlapping design, coverage  (radius) area is traded for improved throughput.

Overlapping Signals Eliminate Dead Spots

Note: these overlapping signals must be in nonoverlapping channels.  This scenario, however, requires WLAN roaming.   WLAN roaming plans consider that as a user moves away from a WAP and is therefore losing signal strength, his connection should seamlessly jump to a WAP that provides a stronger signal.

Point-to-Point Bridging

It is not always feasible to run a network cable between two buildings to join their respective LANs into a single broadcast domain.  If the two buildings are a reasonable distance apart and preferably in direct line of sight  with each other, wireless bridges can be configured, as shown below.  It takes two WAPs to create one logical two-port bridge.  In this mode, WAPs are operating in a dedicated point-to-point bridge mode and therefore are no longer operating as wireless access points for clients.

Point-to-Point Bridging

This page is maintained by:   Prof. Michael P. Harris, CCNA, CCAI
 Last modified:  20-Jul-2008
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